Current note focusses on the role of bioinformatics and pharmacogenomics in drug discovery and development process. drug designing, and reduce the cost and over all time. Lindpaintner K: Pharmacogenetics and the future of medical practice, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2002; 54:221-230. This phase refers to period when the licences is granted to launch medicine in market, so this phase is also known as the as postmarketing surveillance or pharmacovigliance. Pharmacogenomics J 2006: 6 (4):265–268. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2011: 90 (4):625–629. At present, the drugs that are present in the market act at less than 450 out of 1000 target in the human proteome 8. The development of a new drug requires a technological expertise, human resources and huge capital investment. 2008 Nov;9(9):978-85. While in vitro and in silico methodologies play an integral role in drug discovery, animal models continue to prove their value in the process. Hung S-I, Chung W-H, Jee S-H et al: Genetic susceptibility to carbamazepine-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions. For clinicians, clinical practice guidelines are available to make genotype- based decision for patient with an indication with carbamazepine therapy 58, 59. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumaun University Bhimtal Campus, Bhimtal, Nainital - 263136, Uttarakhand, India. By no means a saviour – able to answer any and all questions – it nevertheless plays a role in the generation of data to be mined. Drug Discovery in the Age of Genomics Currently, only 10% of drug therapies actually reach patients because the genetic mechanisms of disease and their consequences for drug action are not well … N Engl J Med2009: 361 (8): 827–828. The carbamazepine- induced SLS/TEN largely depend on the genetic of the patient ancestry. Avoid codeine use because of lack of efficacy. Nature 2001; 409: 928±933. If we talk about the history of pharmacogenomics it takes us about 510 B.C back. These are considered as below and in Table 1. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. * Recognize current modern drug discovery based on the lock-and-key theory, which attempts to use one single compound to hit one target to combat the related disease. McCarthy AD, Kennedy JL, Middleton LT: Pharmacogenetics in drug development, Philos Trans R soc Lond B Bio sci 2005;360:1579-88, Lee SY, Nam MH, Kim JS, Kim JW: A case report of a patient carrying CYP2C9*3/4 genotype wuth extremely low Warfarin dose requirement. Lundstrom K (2007) Structural genomics and drug discovery. The role of human genomics in drug target discovery. In 2017, a research team from the University of California Berkeley discovered in some of the world’s smallest bacteria a protein similar to Cas9 but substantially smaller, which… However, genomics … Pediatr Cardiol 2012: 34 (4): 984–990. Introduction to the Drug Discovery Process. This method of study is very extensive and elaborate form for the study of effect of various allelic variants occurring throughout the genome and the study of the drug response in diseased condition. SJS and TEN are serious bilistering reaction of skin and mucous membrane which mortality rate range from 10% to 50% 53. How Genomics and Proteomics play an important role in drug development and discovery. Detection of new protein that is involved in disease process. The refinement of the phase I study is carried out by using pharmacogenomics principe, which focus on individual genotype through pre-clinical testing 9. For the predication of the accurate dose of warfarin several pharmacogenetic based dosing algorithms have been developed 48, 49. The International SNP Map Working Group. N Engl J Med 2009: 360 (8):753–764. We are only just beginning to realise the beneficial impact of genomics on human health, which was perhaps prematurely promised at the … In this review the significance and challenges of these rapidly evolving technologies in cancer drug target discovery are discussed. Drugs R D 8: 201–212.MJ Pucci2007Novel genetic techniques and approaches in the microbial genomics era: identification and/or validation of targets for the discovery of new antibacterial agents.Drugs R … Since from this investigation there are numerious landmark (Table 2) that have suggested this field as research. The serious or fatel adverse reaction have been observed in the neonate after receiving the breast milk of the mother receiving standard dose of codeine for post-partum pain 32, 33. Rieder MJ, Reiner AP and Rettie AE; Gamma-Glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) tagSNPs have limited utility for predicting Warfarin maintenance dose. Volpe D, McMahon Tobin G, Mellon R et al: Uniform assessment and ranking of opioid μ receptor binding constants for selected opioid drugs. New York, Oxford University Press, 1909. Second, it guides physicians in selecting the right drug for patients based on their genetic make-up, in avoiding ADR, and in maximizing drug efficacy by prescribing the right dose. View … Results from genetic toxicology tests in combination with acute and subchronic animal data are used as the basis to approve clinical trials of drug candidates. Pharmacogenomics plays two major roles in precision medicine. Br Med J 1960; 2:4484±4491. 2008 Nov;9(9):978-85. ... (Johns Hopkins University) where he pioneered the use of ‘isogenic’ X-MAN™ cancer model cell ines in HTS and drug discovery. The genetic variants in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region lead to carbamazepine induced hypersensitivity reaction in both child and adult. INTRODUCTION: Pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetic are two inter-related term that are widely used for the drug development and therapy. These phases of clinical trial provide regulatory approval to launch medicine in the market. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1979; 16: 183±187. Genetic toxicology data is used as a surrogate for long-term carcinogenicity data during early drug development. 176 This precision medicine approach has been used successfully in the clinic, particularly in oncology. “Drug discovery involves looking at the role genes play in disease, by examining patient phenotype. Bioinformatics tools are very effective in prediction, analysis and interpretation of clinical and preclinical findings. In case of warfarin several adverse effect can be observed such as bleeding or thrombosis due to narrow therapeutic window and inappropriate dosing in individual 40. With the help of Pharmacogenomics less effort is to be required to improve the marketing surveillance than harmonization of marketing authorization procedure and creation of single market 10. Knowledge of all the human genes and their … According to this paper, “pharmacogenetics is the study of inter individual variations in DNA sequence related to drug response”, while “Pharmacogenomics is the study of the variability of the expression of individual genes relevant to disease susceptibility as well as drug response at cellular, tissue, individual or population level. Drug discovery and development is a complex, high risk, time consuming and potentially highly rewarding process. Lonjou C, Thomas L, Borot N et al: A marker for Stevens-Johnson syndrome ethnicity matters. With the advent of genetic engineering, these refined mouse models have become the primary animal model for investigators working in the drug discovery process. Reddy, Zulkifli Yusop, Jafariah Jaafar, Vemula Madhavi and Gajulapalle Madhavi Affiliation:Department of Chemistry, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor 81300, Malaysia. Ojha A and Joshi T: A Review on the Role of Pharmacogenomics in Drug Discovery and Development. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2008: 25 (2): 151–159. Lander ES, Linton LM, Birren B, et al: Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome.